Unterschiede in den Persönlichkeitsstilen von psychotherapeutischen Tätigen in Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz in Abhängigkeit von psychotherapeutischen Verfahren und der Verwendung von Hypnose.
Burkhard, P., Böbel, E., Hagl, M., Richter, M., & Kazén, M.
Differences in personality styles of psychotherapists in Germany, Austria and Switzerland in relation to the applied psychotherapeutic techniques and the use of hypnosis. In an online survey conducted in 2015, 1027 psychotherapists from Germany, Austria and Switzerland provided data on their personal and professional background. They filled in the short version of the PSDI (Personality Style and Disorder Inventory), answering 56 questions. The personality profiles showed the following distinctions: (1) German psychotherapists are less intuitive/schizotypal than the ones in Austria and Switzerland; (2) older psychotherapists using psychoanalysis, other psychoanalytical techniques or client-centered therapy are more reserved/schizoid, more ambitious/narcissistic, and more intuitive/schizotypal than younger psychotherapists applying behaviour or systemic therapy; (3) therapists using psychoanalysis are more willful/paranoid then those using behaviour therapy; (4) behaviour therapists are less intuitive/schizotypal than therapists using client-centered therapy or “other approaches”; (5) therapists using “other approaches” are more optimistic/rhapsodic than the ones applying psychoanalysis or psychoanalytical approaches. (6) Those who use also hypnosis are less passive/depressive but more optimistic/rhapsodic. The results in this study contradict populist presumptions and reveal psychotherapists to be healthy and seasoned personalities.
Frontiers of Psychology
Personality styles of German-speaking psychotherapists differ from a norm, and male psychotherapists differ from their female colleagues.
Burkhard, P., Böbel, E. Hagl, M., Richter M., & Kazén, M.
Variables pertaining to the person of the psychotherapist have been neglected in psychotherapy research for some time. Concerning personality in particular, however, research has mostly focused on its relation with the psychotherapist’s choice of method, or differences between the various major therapy approaches. That is, psychotherapists were compared to each other without specifying how exactly psychotherapists are in comparison to “ordinary people.” We wanted to know: Are there specific personality styles that distinguish psychotherapists from the norm? A sample of 1,027 psychotherapists from Germany, Austria, and Switzerland filled out the short version of the Personality Style and Disorder Inventory (PSDI-S) via online survey. The PSDI-S is a self-report questionnaire that assesses 14 personality styles, partly related to the non-pathological equivalents of classifiable personality disorders. The psychotherapists were compared to a normative sample of 3,392 people of different professions. The results could be divided into three groups: (1) Large differences in four personality styles that might contribute to relationship skills and may enable psychotherapists to put their own personal opinion aside, show empathy and appreciation, open themselves to the emotional experience of the patient, and provide a trusting relationship. (2) Moderate differences in seven personality styles that are equally indicative of the professional social skills of the psychotherapists, i.e., they were neither submissive nor passive, not excessively helpful, but also not too self-assertive. (3) Hardly any or no differences regarding a charming (histrionic) style, optimism, and conscientiousness. Gender-specific results revealed that male psychotherapists differed from their female colleagues, but they did so differently than men and women in the normative sample do. The main limitations were that we relied on self-report and did not statistically control for gender, age, and education, when comparing to the norm. As a conclusion, German-speaking psychotherapists show personality styles that we interpret as functional for psychotherapeutic practice but this needs corroboration from studies that use different methods and measures.
Excelling at selling: Charming personality style predicts occupational activities, sales performance, and persuasive competence.
The present research investigates how individual differences in charming personality are related to occupational activities, sales performance, and persuasive competence. Study 1 showed that sales representatives had higher scores on the charming personality style than executive managers. Study 2 showed that the charming personality style predicted actual sales performance among branch managers of a large German insurance company over a period of 2 years; the explicit power motivation served as a mediator in this relation. Finally, Study 3, carried out in a laboratory setting, confirmed the hypothesis that a charming personality is associated with persuasive competence, which suggests that this style is more relevant for sales representatives than for executive managers. The authors conclude that the charming personality style represents an important psychological resource for organizations.
How do personality systems interact in patients with psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and urticaria?
The aim of this study was to evaluate characteristic personality system interaction in patients with psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and urticaria. The differences between these three disease groups were examined with respect to various psychological variables and deviations from a group of healthy controls. A total of 56 patients with atopic dermatitis (n=21), psoriasis (n=20) and urticaria (n=15) were tested with the "Assessment of Personality Functioning in Therapy" Inventory, which consists of psychometric scales for basic needs (affiliation, achievement, power), enactment of needs-related behaviour, stress, emotional dispositions, cognitive styles and various self-regulation functions. Significant differences with respect to needs and motivational goals, cognitive styles and self-regulation competence were found between the three disease groups, showing considerable overlap between atopic dermatitis and urticaria, but only a little overlap with psoriasis. From a psychological viewpoint, patients with psoriasis seem to carry a higher risk of developing mental disorders. Based on our results, existing prevention programmes for patients with atopic dermatitis seem appropriate, whereas such programmes for patients with psoriasis should focus on self-motivation, prevention of addictive behaviour, and strengthening of self-efficacy.
Arbeitsunfähigkeit bei jüngeren Dorsopathie-Patienten und ihre Wechselwirkung mit Schmerzen, Funktionskapazität, sozialen Faktoren und Persönlichkeitsstilen.
The relationships between sick absenteeism and clinical measures were studied for a group of younger patients with chronic back pain (mean years of age for women and men were 41.7 and 42.2, respectively) who were sent to a rehabilitation programme. The duration of sick absenteeism during the last year as well as the momentary status of working ability were correlated with different clinical variables and personality styles. At the beginning of the rehabilitation program, the measure of functional capacity (FFbH-R, Kohlmann u. Raspe, 1996) showed the strongest correlation with temporary working disability (r = -.46) and duration of sick absenteeism during the last year (r = -.44). The severity of pain showed a lower but significant correlation with temporary working disability (r = .24) and duration of sick absenteeism (r = .25). In contrast, depression, vitality and age did not show significant correlations with temporary working disability at the beginning of the rehabilitation. In addition, some of the personality styles from the PSSI (Kuhl u. Kazén, 1997) showed significant correlations with temporary working disability and duration of sick absenteeism. When entering the variables into regression analyses, the measure of functional capacity was the most important predictor of sick absenteeism. Severity of pain, depression, vitality and age did not significantly add to the variance accounted for. In contrast, distinct personality styles from the PSSI significantly contributed to an additional proportion of variance in sick absenteeism and temporary working disability. At the end of the rehabilitation program, there were stable relationships between temporary working disability and functional capacity (r = -.45) as well as severity of pain (r = .39). In, correlations between temporary working disability and depression (r = .30) and vitality (r = -.19) were significant. This was due to the stronger improvement during therapy among patients who were able to work compared to patients who were not.
An Affiliation of TUFTS UNIVERSITY, School of Public Health and Community Medicine